An addend (also summand) is any of the numbers that are added to form the sum in an addition problem. Together with an operation and equality symbol (in this case addition (+) and equals (=)) they form an addition sentence, or even more generally, an equation, as in the figure below.

The addends in an addition problem are terms of the equation. It is important to learn the various parts of an equation, particularly when the equations are relatively simple, to form a basis for learning more complex mathematical concepts. Knowing the vocabulary used to reference the various parts of the equation allows us to more exactly define new concepts while efficiently referencing others.

For example, an equation involving subtraction, multiplication, or division have all the same components, with a key difference being the operation used. Once we know the various parts of an addition equation, we can apply it to other operations, and later extend it into working with variables in algebra. Below are some examples that show ways we can practice addition problems.


1. Identify the addends in 3 + 6 = 9

3 and 6 are the addends.

2. Identify the addends in 1.34 + 7 + 3 = 11.34

1.34, 7, and 3 are the addends.

3. Fill in the missing addend in 3 + ? = 9.

The missing addend is 6.

Identifying same sum addends can also help with learning and practicing the concepts of addition. Same sum addends are the various possible addends that, when added, result in the same same total.


Find 3 different combinations of addends that add to 10.

  • 1 + 9 = 10
  • 2 + 8 = 10
  • 5 + 5 = 10

This example can further be extended to a lesson in other concepts such as compatible numbers and the commutative property of addition.